The document references have been listed below in the documentation format, there have been more broader use of references in the online material produced and the full references for the review are listed on the wiki references pages here


            Anderton, J. (2005), Access to Finance not a problem for credit worthy New Zealand businesses: Ministry of Economic Development.

ANZ Business Barometer (2009) The ANZ Privately owned business barometer 2009,

Arnold, B., (2004) Caslon Analytics Digital Environments, Retrieved  May, 23 from; http://www.caslon.com.au/digitalguide.htm

Bates, T. (1997). Race, Self-Employment and Upward Mobility. Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson Centre Press.

Belich (2003) The Kiwi Curse and Its Lifting, The Knowledge Wave Forum, Auckland

Benson-Rea M & Shepard D. (2008). Macpac gears up and gets out there. University of Auckland Business Review, Spring 2008, 45-52.

Berken, S., (2008) How to innovate right now, Essay number 58, Blog Retrieved from www.ScottBerkun.com

Birley, S. (1985a). The role of networks in the entrepreneurial process. Journal of Business Venturing, 1(1), 107-117.

Birley, S., & Cromie, S. (1988). Social Networks and Entrepreneurship in Northern Ireland, Paper presented at the Enterprise in Action Conference.

Birley, S., Cromie, S., & Myers, A. (1991). Entrepreneurship Networks: Their emergence in Ireland and Overseas. International Small Business Journal, 9(4).

Borch, O. J., & Huse, M. (1993). Informal Strategic Networks and the Board of Directors. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 23-34.

Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1).

Boyes, J. (2008). Business Mentors Give Small NZ Companies a Helping Hand. Her Magazine.

Brajkovich, L. F. (1994). Sources of social structure in a start-up organization: work networks, work activities, and job status. Social Networks, 16(3), 191-212.

Brass, D. J. (1984). Being in the right place: a structural analysis of individual influence in an organization. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29, 518-539.

Brass, D. J. (1992). Power in organisations: a social network perspective. Research Political Science, 4, 295-323.

Bruderl, J., & Preisendorfer, P. (1998). Network Support and the sucess of newley founded businesses. Small Business Economics, 10, 213-225.

Burkhardt, M. E., & Brass, D. J. (1990). Changing Patterns or Patterns of Change: The effects of change in technology on social network structure and power. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 104-127.

Burt, R. S. (1992). Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Review.

Busbin, J. W., Johnson, J. T., & DeConinck, J. (2008). The Evolution of Sustainable Competitive Advantage: from value chain to modular outsourcing networking. Competitive Forum, 6(1), 103-108.

Business NZ (2009). Idea to Impact - Making R&D work for your business. Retrieved 13 April 2010 from http://www.businessnz.org.nz/file/1783/IDEA%20TO%20IMPACT.PDF

Contributor (2010, Jun 3) Report, Value f social media missed by smres Retreieved from techday.co.nz

Cachia, R., Compañó, R ., & Da Costa, O. (2007). Grasping the potential of online social networks for foresight, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 74(8), 1179-1203.

Campbell Live (2010 June 22). Kiwi businesses turn to Twitter. 3 News.

Chell E & Baines S. (2000). Networking, entrepreneurship and microbusiness behaviour. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 12, 195-215.

Coviello N and Martin K. (1999). Internationalization of Service SMEs: An Integrated Perspective from the Engineering Consulting Sector. Journal of International Marketing 7(4): 42-66.

Das, T. K., & Bing-Sheng, T. (1998). Between trust and control: Developing confidence in partner cooperation in alliances. Academy of Management. The Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 491.

Deeds, D. L., Mang, P. Y., & Frandsen, M. (1997). The quest for legitimacy: a study of biotechnology IPO's In P. D. e. a. Reynolds (Ed.), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research (pp. 533-543). Wellesley, MA: Center for Entrepreneurial Studies.

DeMatteo, R (2010, Jun 23) Earn Some Respect Networking, Blog Post, Corn of the Job

Derek SiversL2009) How to start a movement, TED Video, Retrieved from Youtube

Digital Strategy Advisory Group. (2008). Digital Strategy 2.0 Plan. Wellington.

Digital Strategy (2009)  A Draft New Zealand Digital Strategy for Consultation June 2004.

Dodd, S. D. (1997). Social network membership and activity rates: some comparative data. International Small Business Journal, 15, 80-87.

Dodge,R, Fullerton S, Robbins J (1994). Stage of the Organizational Life cycle and Competition as Mediators of Problem Perception for Small Businesses. Strategic Management Journal, 15, 121-134.

eMarketer (2009 June 30). How the old, the young, and everyone in between uses social networks. Listrak. Retrieved May 25th 2010, from emarketer.com

eMarketer (2010 June 30) From yesterday; study - social media users aren't that worried abotu provacy and securtiy - http://bit.ly/9hwjsr , Twitter post.

Elfring, T., & Hulsink, W. (2004). The Strong versus Weak Tie Effect on Entrepreneurial Processes: ICT Start-ups in the Netherlands.

Ellison, N. B., Lampe, C., and Steinfield, C. (2009). Social network sites and society: current trends and future possibilities. Interactions 16(1): 6-9.

Fabling, R., Grimes, A., & Sanderson, L. (2009). Whatever next? Export market choices of New Zealand Firms (DP2009/19 ed.). Discussion Paper Series

Foley, D. (2008). Does culture and social capital impact on the networking attributes of indigenous entrepreneurs? Journal of Enterprising Communities, People and Places in the Global Economy, 2(3), 204-224.

Freeman, L. (1979). Centrality in social networks: conceptual clarifications. Social Networks, 1, 215-239.

Friedman TL. (2007) The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century. Picador. ASIN: B000U913GG

Gill & MacCormick (1999). Working Paper No. 5. Sharing Services Centres. State Services Commission

Gill D, MacCormick J (1999). Shared Service Centres. Working Paper No. 5 State Services Commission. ISBN 0-478-08979-1

Gilmore, A., & Carson, D. (1999). Entrepreneurial marketing by networking. New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, 2(2), 31.

Gilmore, A., Carson, D., Grant, K., & O'Donnell, A. (2006). Networking in SMEs: Finings from Australia and Ireland. Irish Marketing Review, 18(1/2), 21.

Granovetter, M. (1973). The Strength of Weak Ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78, 1360-1380.

Granovetter, M. (1983). The Strength of Weak Ties: A network theory revisited. Sociological Theory, 1, 201-233.

Greenstein H. (2010). Why Feedback and Filters are Necessary in Social Media. Posted on Mashable / Social Media. Retrieved 22 June 2010 from http://mashable.com/2010/06/20/feedback-filters-social-media/

Gregor, Kelly (2010, May 18) Twitter your business up, conference told, New Zealand Herald, Retrieved 20 May, 2010 from nzherald.co.nz

Gulati, R. (1995). Social structure and alliance formation patterns: A longitudinal analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40(4), 619.

Gulati, R. (1999). Network location and learning: the influence of network resources and firm capabilities on alliance formation. Strategic Management Journal, 20(5), 397-420.

Hairsine J. (2010, June 23). Presentation given at Auckland Business School Networking Skills Workshop.

Hara, G., & Kanai, T. (1994). Entrepreneurial networks across oceans to promote international strategic alliances for small businesses. Journal of Business Venturing, 9(6), 489-507.

Häusler, J., Hohn, H.-W., & Lütz, S. (1994). Contingencies of innovative networks: A case study of successful interfirm R & D collaboration. [doi: DOI: 10.1016/0048-7333(94)90026-4]. Research Policy, 23(1), 47-66.

Higgins, M. C., & Gulati, R. (2000). Getting off to a good start: the effects of top management team affiliations on prestige of investment bank and IPO success. [Working Paper].

Hill , J., & McGowan, P. (1996). Marketing Development through networking: a competency based approach for small firm entrepreneurs. Small Business and Enterprise Development, 3, 148-156.

Hite, J. M. (2000). Patterns of multidimensionality in embedded network ties of emerging entrepreneurial firms. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management.

Hoang, H., & Antoncic, B. (2003). Network-based research in entrepreneurship: A critical review. Journal of Business Venturing 18, 165-187.

Hoang, H., & Young, N. (2000). Social embeddedness and entrepreneurial opportunity recognition; (More) evidence of embed activity in the biotechnology industry. Academy of Management Journal, 267-271.

Hoffman R, cited in Rao L. (2009 March 5).  Reid Hoffman Tells Charlie Rose: "Every Individual Is Now An Entrepreneur." Techcrunch.com.

Investment New Zealand (2009, June), Private Equity and venture capital investment in New Zealand - The New Zealand advantage, Report,

Investment New Zealand (2009, June), Private Equity and venture capital investment in New Zealand - The New Zealand advantage, Report, http://www.med.govt.nz/templates/MultipageDocumentTOC____18167.aspx

Irving, Kolb, Sheppard & Woods, (2009) Changing Gears: how to take you kiwi business from the kitchen table to the board room. Auckland University Press. ISBN 978 1 86940 450 5.

Jaafar, M., Abdul-Aziz, A., & Sahari, M. (2009). The use of social network theory on entreprenuer's linkages development. Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management, 101.

Jack, S. L., & Anderson, A. R. (2002). The effects of embeddedness on the entrepreneurial process. Journal of Business Venturing, 17, 467-487.

Jarillo, C. J. (1988). On strategic networks. Strategic Management Journal, 9, 31-41.

Jenssen, J. I., & Greve, A. (2002). Does the degree of redundancy in social networks influence the sucess of business start-ups? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 8(5), 254-267.

Johannisson, B., & Johnsson, T. (1988). New Venture Strategies: Vaxjo University.

Johannisson, B., Alexanderson, O., Nowicki, K., & Senneseth, K. (1994). Beyond anarchy and organization: entrepreneurs in contextual networks. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 6, 329-356.

Jones, C., Hesterly, W. S., & Borgatti, S. P. (1997). A General Theory of Network Governance: Exchange Conditions and Social Mechanisms. The Academy of Management Review, 22(4), 911-945.

Jones,S., & Fox, S., (2009, Jan 28), Generations Online: Charts, Pew Research Center,  Presentation

Kilduff M, Tsai W, Hanke R. (2006) A Paradigm too far? A Dynamic Stability Reconsideration of the Social Network Research Program. Academy of Management Review 31(4):1031-1048.

Kim, R. (2006, Jul 06). Sony plays white vs. black.   Retrieved Nov 2, 2008, from http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/blogs/sfgate/detail?blogid=19&entry_id=6835

Klyver, K. I. M. (2007). Shifting family involvement during the entrepreneurial process. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 13(5), 258-277.

Knuckey, S., Johnston, H., Campbell-Hunt, C., Carlaw, K., Corbett, L., & Massey, C. (2002). Study of New Zealand Practises and Performance Wellington.

Kogut, B., & Zander, U. (1993). Knowledge of the firm and the evolutionary theory of the Multinational Corporation. Journal of International Business Studies, 34(6), 516-529.

Kolb, Collins & Lind, (2008) ‘Requisite Connectivity: Finding Flow in a Not-So-Flat World.’ Organizational Dynamics, 37, 2 (April-June), 181-189.

Kolb, D (2008), Exploring the Metaphor of Connectivity: Attributes, Dimensions & Duality, Organisataional Studies, 29 (1), Retrieved 2 May, 2010 from SAGE.

Kolb, D, (2002) Continuity not change: The next organisational challenge', University of Auckland Business Review 4, 2, 36-46.

Krackhardt, D. (1990). Assessing the Political Landscape: Structure, Cognition, and Power in Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(2), 342-369.

Larson, A. (1992). Network dyads in entrepreneurial settings: a study of the governance of exchange relations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37, 76-104.

Larson, A., & Starr, J. A. (1993). A Network Model of Organizational Formation. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 5-15.

Lee, P. (2010, May 11). Boost for Research & Technology welcomed. Auckland,

Levit A. (2010 January 8). 4 Steps for Effective Online Networking. Retrieved 18th May 2010 from NJBusinessNetworking.com

Lewis K, Kaufman J, Gonzalez M, Wimmer A, Christakis N. Tastes, ties, and time: A new social network dataset using Facebook.com, Social Networks, 30(4): 330-342.

Lewis, D. (2009). US Academic sees progress in NZ venture capital: New Zealand Venture Investment Fund Ltd.

Licoppe C. & Smoreda Z. (2005). Are social networks technologically embedded? How networks today with changes in communication technology. Social Networks, 27: 317-335.

Light, I. (1984). Immigrant and ethnic enterprise in North America. Ethnic Racial Study, 7, 195-216.

Lipparini, A., & Lorenzoni, G. (1993). Organizational architecture, inter-firm relationships and entrepreneurial profile: findings from a set of SMEs. In N. S. e. a. Churchill (Ed.), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research (pp. 370-384). Wellesley, MA: Center for Entrepreneurial Studies.

Logan, D., (2009) Tribal Leadership, TED x USC Speech, Retrieded 2010 from

Lorenzoni, G., & Lipparini, A. (1999). The leveraging interfirm relationships as distincitive organizational capability: a longitudinal study. Strategic Management Journal, 20(4), 317-338.

Mapp, W. (2010). Angel Association Networking Function Speech. Paper presented at the NZX  Networking Function from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/angel+association+networking+function+speech

McEntee C. (2010 June 14) Online marking gets the big tick. Retrieved 14th June 2010 from Stuff.co.nz

McEvily, B., & Zaheer, A. (1999). Bridging ties: a source of firm heterogeneity in competitive capabilities. Strategic Management Journal, 20, 1133-1156.

Ministry of Economic Development reports 1998-2009 (various)

Ministry of Economic Development, (2006), A Strategic Consideration of ICT Security and Confidence in New Zealand: Discussion Paper for Key Agencies /Organisations, Resources and Networks Branch, retrieved from; http://www.med.govt.nz/templates/MultipageDocumentTOC____18167.aspx

Ministry of Economic Development, (2009), SMEs in New Zealand: Structure & Dynamics,

Ministry of Economic Development. (2000, January). Sources of Capital Avaliable to Small and Medium Enterprises. Wellington.

Ministry of Economic Development. (2000, March). Information and Communication Technologies and Social and Economic Inclusion.

Ministry of Economic Development. (2006). SMEs in New Zealand: Structure and Dynamics.

Ministry of Economic Development. (2007, March). SME's in New Zealand: Structure and Dynamics. from http://sme-centre.massey.ac.nz/files/SMEs_Structure_&_Dynamics_07.pdf

Moos, Bob  (2009, Oct 12) The Dallas Morning News

Nielsen (2009). Global Faces and Network Places: a Nielsen Report on Social Networking. Retrieved 22 November 2009 from Nielsen Online.

NZ Business. (2004, Feb) The psyche of the small business owner. Retrieved 02/04/2010 from www.nzbusiness.co.nz  

NZ Government (2004). E-government in New Zealand. Retrieved May 10, 2010 from http://www.e.govt.nz/

NZ Government (2006). E-government in New Zealand. Retrieved May 10, 2010 from http://www.e.govt.nz/

NZ Institute. (2007). The 2007/08 World Economic Forum: Global Competitiveness Report, Retrieved Jan 2009, from www.nzinstittute.co.nz

NZTE (2009) Playing to Strengths, Report, Retrieved Jan, 2009 from www.nzte.govt.nz  

O'Donnell, A., & Cummings, D. (1999). The use of qualitative methods to research networking in SMEs. Qualitative Market Research, 2(2), 82-91.

O'Donnell, A., Gilmore, A., Cummins, D., & Carson, D., (2001). The network construct in entrepreneurship research: A review and critique. Management Decision, 39(9), 749.

OECD, (2009), OECD in Figures 2009,  Report, Retrieved Dec, 2009 from;  http://www.oecd.org/document/47/0,3343,en_2649_34489_43896303_1_1_1_1,00.html

OECD (2009). September 2009 Policy Brief. In-Work Poverty: What Can Governments Do?, Report, Retrieved Dec, 2009 from; http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/0/26/43650040.pdf

Oviatt, B. M., & McDougall, P. P., (1994), Toward a Theory of International new ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 25(1), 45-64

Pages E & Garmise S., (2003), The Power of Entrepreneurial Networking, Economic Development Journal. Summer 2003. 20-30.

Paymark Limited. (2010). Introduction, Evolution of Money, homepage,  Retrieved May, 2010 from http://www.paymark.co.nz/cms_display.php?st=1&sn=37

Pew Research Center, (2010, Feb 24), The Millennials: Confident. Connected. Open to Change,  Pew Research Center Publications,  Retrieved May 23, 2010, from; http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1501/%2OmiIlennials-new-survey-generational-personality-upbeat-open-new-ideas-technology-bound

Portes, A., & Sensenbrenner, J. (1993). Embeddedness and immigration: notes on the social determinants of economic action. American Journal of Sociology, 98, 1320-1350.

Powell, W. W. (1990). Neither market nor hierarchy: network forms of organization. In L. L. a. S. Cummings, B.M. (Ed.), Research in Organizational Behavior (Vol. 12, pp. 295-336). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Price Waterhouse Coopers. (2000). Managing the stages of business growth. from http://business.govt.nz/Grow-your-business/Growing-your-business/Managing-the-stages-of-business-growth.aspx

Pruitt, D. G. (1981). Negotiation Behavior. New York, NY: Academic Press.

Qualman E. (2009). Statistics Show Social Media Is Bigger Than You Think.  Posted at Socialnomics Social Media Blog. Retrieved June 21, 2010 from http://socialnomics.net/2009/08/11/statistics-show-social-media-is-bigger-than-you-think/

Raine, L. (2010, Mar 19). Baby Boomers in the Digital Age. (P. R. Center, Ed.) http://pewinternet.org/Presentations/201O/Mar/Boomers.aspx.

Rasmus, D. W. (2010). The Problems With Personal Data Collection.   Retrieved 5 May 2010, from; http://www.internetevolution.com/author.asp?section_id=940&doc_id=192059&

Raz, O., & Gloor, P. A. (2007). Size Really Matters-New Insights for Start-ups' Survival. Management Science, 53(2), 169.

Rosenthal, E. (1997). Social Networks and team performance. Team Performance Management, 3(4), 288-294.

Russell P. (2010) What is Ooooby. Retrieved 21 June 2010 from http://ooooby.ning.com/profiles/blogs/what-is-ooooby

Saunders, Dalziel & Kaye B (2009)

Saxenian, A. (1991). The origins and dynamics of production networks in Silicon Valley. Research Policy, 20(5), 423-437.

Schiavone, F. (2004). Division Of Labour, Social Networks And Intangible Resources: The Italian Case Of Network Business Creation. Paper presented at the High Technology Small Firms. Retrieved 23 March, 2002, from

Shaw G. (2008) From Social Networking to Savvy Marketing Tool. Prince Georges Citizen, Newspaper, November 8, 2008, p27.

Singer, J. B. (Host). (2007, July 30). Social Networking: Interview with Dr. Lambert Maguire [Episode 21]. Social Work Podcast. Podcast retrieved Month Day, Year, from   http://socialworkpodcast.com/2007/07/social-networking-interview-with-dr.html

Singer, M. (2010). Enterprise Needs to Embrace Social CRM.   Retrieved 9 May, 2010, from; http://www.internetevolution.com/author.asp?section_id=774&doc_id=192011&piddl_msgid=231397#msg_231397

Singh, R. P., Hills, G. E., Lumpkin, G. T., & Hybels, R. C. (1999). The entrepreneurial opportunity recognition process: examining the role of self-perceived alertness and social networks. Paper presented at the 1999 Academy of Management Meeting.

Smeltzer, L. R., Van Hook, B. L., & Hutt, R. W. (1991). Analysis and use of advisors as information sources in venture startups. Journal of Small Business Management, 29(3), 10-20.

Starr, J. A., & Macmillan, I. C. (1990). Resource cooptation via social contracting: resource acquisition strategies for new ventures. Strategic Management Journal, 11, 79-92.

Statistics New Zealand (2008). Research and Development Survey: 2008. ISSN 1178-0657

Statistics New Zealand and Ministry of Research, Science and Technology. (2008). Research and Development Survey: 2008. Retrieved 14 May 2010 from Statistics New Zealand.

Stringfellow, L., & Shaw, E. (2009). Conceptualising entrepreneurial capital for a study of performance in small professional service firms. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 15(2), 137-161.

Stuart, T. E., Hoang, H., & Hybels, R. (1999). Interorganizational endorsements and the performance of entrepreneurial ventures. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 315-349.

Sutton M. (2010, Jun 13). Schools ring the changes. Sunday Star Times. Retrieved 13 June 2010, from http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/3806185/Schools-ring-the-changes

Tancer B. (2007 October 31). Facebook: More Popular Than Porn. Time. Retrieved 14 October 2009 from http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1678586,00.html

Thorelli, H. B. (1986). Networks: between markets and hierarchies. Strategic Management Journal, 7, 37-51.

Uzzi, B. (1997). Social structure and competition in interfirm networks: The paradox of embeddedness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(1), 35-67.

Van Gelderen, M.W., & Jansen, P.G.W. (2006). Autonomy as a startup motive. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 13, 1, 23-32.

Williamson M. (2009) Small businesses remain a vital part of New Zealand economy. Retrieved 18/06/2010 from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release /small+businesses+remain+vital+part+new+zealand+economy

Wikipedia (2010) List of Social Networking Sites